Anti-apartheid Activity


Demonstrators outside the London headquarters of Fluor UK on 10 March 1980. Fluor was the British subsidiary of a US multinational that was bidding for a contract to build a new oil-from-coal plant for the South African state energy company SASOL. Holding Institution: AAM Archive, Bodleian Library.

South Africa (SA)

Violet Hache, African Trade Union leader, at “Freedom Square” in Fordsburg, Johannesburg, 6th April 1952. Photographer Jürgen Schadeberg. Courtesy Claudia Schadeberg, Collection: Defiance Campaign South Africa 1952, Jürgen Schadeberg Archives.


Ivor Richard (left), Permanent Representative of the United Kingdom at the United Nations (UN), conversing with David Sibeko, Permananet Representative of the Pan Africanist Congress of Azania (PAC) at the UN, in a lounge outside the General Assembly Hall. Holding Institution: UN Photo/Yutaka Nagata. Date: 10/05/1978.

African Continent

While underground in 1962 Mandela received military training from Algerian Freedom Fighters in Morocco. On his right is ANC Chief Representative in Algeria Robert Resha. Holding Institution: Mayibuye Archives, University of the Western Cape (UWC), South Africa.